The precept requiring ritual circumcision is derived from a number of Biblical passages, such as "Every male shall be circumcized" (Gen. 17:10) and "On the eighth_ day, his foreskin shall be circumcized" (Levit. 12:3). Circumcision and abhorrence of the uncircumcized state (Arel) are mentioned or alluded to in other Pentateuchal passages, 1 as well as in Prophets and Scripture. 2 The Mishnah in the Babylonian Talmud (Shabbat 19:2) states:
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